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Essay On 4 Leg Snake Shields

This article is about the animal. For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation).

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorousreptiles of the suborderSerpentes.[2] Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniotevertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca. Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty five times independently via convergent evolution, leading to many lineages of legless lizards.[3] Legless lizards resemble snakes, but several common groups of legless lizards have eyelids and external ears, which snakes lack, although this rule is not universal (see Amphisbaenia, Dibamidae, and Pygopodidae).

Living snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica, and on most smaller land masses; exceptions include some large islands, such as Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, the Hawaiian archipelago, and the islands of New Zealand, and many small islands of the Atlantic and central Pacific oceans.[4] Additionally, sea snakes are widespread throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. More than 20 families are currently recognized, comprising about 520 genera and about 3,600 species.[5][6] They range in size from the tiny, 10.4 cm (4.1 in)-long thread snake[7] to the reticulated python of 6.95 meters (22.8 ft) in length.[8] The fossil species Titanoboa cerrejonensis was 12.8 meters (42 ft) long.[9] Snakes are thought to have evolved from either burrowing or aquatic lizards, perhaps during the Jurassic period, with the earliest known fossils dating to between 143 and 167 Ma ago.[10] The diversity of modern snakes appeared during the Paleocene period (c 66 to 56 Ma ago). The oldest preserved descriptions of snakes can be found in the Brooklyn Papyrus.

Most species are nonvenomous and those that have venom use it primarily to kill and subdue prey rather than for self-defense. Some possess venom potent enough to cause painful injury or death to humans. Nonvenomous snakes either swallow prey alive or kill by constriction.

Etymology

The English word snake comes from Old Englishsnaca, itself from Proto-Germanic*snak-an- (cf. GermanicSchnake "ring snake", Swedish snok "grass snake"), from Proto-Indo-European root *(s)nēg-o- "to crawl", "to creep", which also gave sneak as well as Sanskritnāgá "snake".[11] The word ousted adder, as adder went on to narrow in meaning, though in Old English næddre was the general word for snake.[12] The other term, serpent, is from French, ultimately from Indo-European *serp- (to creep),[13] which also gave Ancient Greekhérpō (ἕρπω) "I crawl".

Evolution

The fossil record of snakes is relatively poor because snake skeletons are typically small and fragile making fossilization uncommon. Fossils readily identifiable as snakes (though often retaining hind limbs) first appear in the fossil record during the Cretaceous period.[15] The earliest known true snake fossils (members of the crown group Serpentes) come from the marine simoliophiids, the oldest of which is the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian age) Haasiophis terrasanctus,[1] dated to between 112 and 94 million years old.[16]

Based on comparative anatomy, there is consensus that snakes descended from lizards.[17]:11[18]Pythons and boas—primitive groups among modern snakes—have vestigial hind limbs: tiny, clawed digits known as anal spurs, which are used to grasp during mating.[17]:11[19] The families Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae also possess remnants of the pelvic girdle, appearing as horny projections when visible.

Front limbs are nonexistent in all known snakes. This is caused by the evolution of their Hox genes, controlling limb morphogenesis. The axial skeleton of the snakes’ common ancestor, like most other tetrapods, had regional specializations consisting of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic), and caudal (tail) vertebrae. Early in snake evolution, the Hox gene expression in the axial skeleton responsible for the development of the thorax became dominant. As a result, the vertebrae anterior to the hindlimb buds (when present) all have the same thoracic-like identity (except from the atlas, axis, and 1–3 neck vertebrae). In other words, most of a snake's skeleton is an extremely extended thorax. Ribs are found exclusively on the thoracic vertebrae. Neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are very reduced in number (only 2–10 lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are present), while only a short tail remains of the caudal vertebrae. However, the tail is still long enough to be of important use in many species, and is modified in some aquatic and tree-dwelling species.

Many modern snake groups originated during the Paleocene, alongside the adaptive radiation of mammals following the extinction of (non-avian) dinosaurs. The expansion of grasslands in North America also led to an explosive radiation among snakes.[20] Previously, snakes were a minor component of the North American fauna, but during the Miocene, the number of species and their prevalence increased dramatically with the first appearances of vipers and elapids in North America and the significant diversification of Colubridae (including the origin of many modern genera such as Nerodia, Lampropeltis, Pituophis, and Pantherophis).[20]

Origins

There is fossil evidence to suggest that snakes may have evolved from burrowing lizards, such as the varanids (or a similar group) during the Cretaceous Period.[21] An early fossil snake relative, Najash rionegrina, was a two-legged burrowing animal with a sacrum, and was fully terrestrial.[22] One extant analog of these putative ancestors is the earless monitor Lanthanotus of Borneo (though it also is semiaquatic).[23]Subterranean species evolved bodies streamlined for burrowing, and eventually lost their limbs.[23] According to this hypothesis, features such as the transparent, fused eyelids (brille) and loss of external ears evolved to cope with fossorial difficulties, such as scratched corneas and dirt in the ears.[21][23] Some primitive snakes are known to have possessed hindlimbs, but their pelvic bones lacked a direct connection to the vertebrae. These include fossil species like Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis, which are slightly older than Najash.[19]

This hypothesis was strengthened in 2015 by the discovery of a 113m year-old fossil of a four-legged snake in Brazil that has been named Tetrapodophis amplectus. It has many snake-like features, is adapted for burrowing and its stomach indicates that it was preying on other animals.[24] It is currently uncertain if Tetrapodophis is a snake or another species, in the squamate order, as a snake-like body has independently evolved at least 26 times. Tetrapodophis does not have distinctive snake features in its spine and skull.[25][26]

An alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests the ancestors of snakes were related to mosasaurs—extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous—which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards.[18] According to this hypothesis, the fused, transparent eyelids of snakes are thought to have evolved to combat marine conditions (corneal water loss through osmosis), and the external ears were lost through disuse in an aquatic environment. This ultimately led to an animal similar to today's sea snakes. In the Late Cretaceous, snakes recolonized land, and continued to diversify into today's snakes. Fossilized snake remains are known from early Late Cretaceous marine sediments, which is consistent with this hypothesis; particularly so, as they are older than the terrestrial Najash rionegrina. Similar skull structure, reduced or absent limbs, and other anatomical features found in both mosasaurs and snakes lead to a positive cladistical correlation, although some of these features are shared with varanids.[citation needed]

Genetic studies in recent years have indicated snakes are not as closely related to monitor lizards as was once believed—and therefore not to mosasaurs, the proposed ancestor in the aquatic scenario of their evolution. However, more evidence links mosasaurs to snakes than to varanids. Fragmented remains found from the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous indicate deeper fossil records for these groups, which may potentially refute either hypothesis.[citation needed]

In 2016 two studies reported that limb loss in snakes is associated with DNA mutations in the Zone of Polarizing Activity Regulatory Sequence (ZRS), a regulatory region of the sonic hedgehog gene which is critically required for limb development. More advanced snakes have no remnants of limbs, but basal snakes such as pythons and boas do have traces of highly reduced, vestigial hind limbs. Python embryos even have fully developed hind limb buds, but their later development is stopped by the DNA mutations in the ZRS.[27][28][29][30]

Distribution

There are over 2,900 species of snakes ranging as far northward as the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and southward through Australia.[18] Snakes can be found on every continent except Antarctica, in the sea, and as high as 16,000 feet (4,900 m) in the Himalayan Mountains of Asia.[18][31]:143 There are numerous islands from which snakes are absent, such as Ireland, Iceland, and New Zealand[4][31] (although New Zealand's waters are infrequently visited by the yellow-bellied sea snake and the banded sea krait).[32]

Taxonomy

See also: List of snake genera

All modern snakes are grouped within the suborderSerpentes in Linnean taxonomy, part of the orderSquamata, though their precise placement within squamates remains controversial.[5]

The two infraorders of Serpentes are: Alethinophidia and Scolecophidia.[5] This separation is based on morphological characteristics and mitochondrial DNA sequence similarity. Alethinophidia is sometimes split into Henophidia and Caenophidia, with the latter consisting of "colubroid" snakes (colubrids, vipers, elapids, hydrophiids, and atractaspids) and acrochordids, while the other alethinophidian families comprise Henophidia.[33] While not extant today, the Madtsoiidae, a family of giant, primitive, python-like snakes, was around until 50,000 years ago in Australia, represented by genera such as Wonambi.

There are numerous debates in the systematics within the group. For instance, many sources classify Boidae and Pythonidae as one family, while some keep the Elapidae and Hydrophiidae (sea snakes) separate for practical reasons despite their extremely close relation.

Recent molecular studies support the monophyly of the clades of modern snakes, scolecophidians, typhlopids + anomalepidids, alethinophidians, core alethinophidians, uropeltids (Cylindrophis, Anomochilus, uropeltines), macrostomatans, booids, boids, pythonids and caenophidians.[14]

Families

Infraorder Alethinophidia 19 families
Family[6]Taxon author[6]Genera[6]Species[6]Common nameGeographic range[34]
AcrochordidaeBonaparte, 183113Wart snakesWestern India and Sri Lanka through tropical Southeast Asia to the Philippines, south through the Indonesian/Malaysian island group to Timor, east through New Guinea to the northern coast of Australia to Mussau Island, the Bismarck Archipelago and Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands.
AniliidaeStejneger, 190711False coral snakeTropical South America.
AnomochilidaeCundall, Wallach, 199313Dwarf pipe snakesWest Malaysia and on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
BoidaeGray, 18251461BoasNorthern, Central and South America, the Caribbean, southeastern Europe and Asia Minor, Northern, Central and East Africa, Madagascar and Reunion Island, the Arabian Peninsula, Central and southwestern Asia, India and Sri Lanka, the Moluccas and New Guinea through to Melanesia and Samoa.
BolyeriidaeHoffstetter, 194622Splitjaw snakesMauritius.
ColubridaeOppel, 1811258[6]1866[6]Typical snakesWidespread on all continents, except Antarctica.[35]
CylindrophiidaeFitzinger, 1843114Asian pipe snakesSri Lanka east through Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and the Malay Archipelago to as far east as Aru Islands off the southwestern coast of New Guinea. Also found in southern China (Fujian, Hong Kong and on Hainan Island) and in Laos.
ElapidaeBoie, 182755359ElapidsOn land, worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, except in Europe. Sea snakes occur in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific.[36]
HomalopsidaeBonaparte, 18452853HomalopsidsSoutheastern Asia and northern Australia.
LamprophiidaeFitzinger, 184360314Lamprophiids (includes former Atractaspididae as well as 6 other subfamilies formerly considered colubrids)Africa, southern Europe, and western-central Asia; two species into southeastern Asia.
LoxocemidaeCope, 186111Mexican burrowing snakeAlong the Pacific versant from Mexico south to Costa Rica.
PareidaeRomer, 1956320Snail-eating snakesSoutheast Asia and islands on the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and their surrounding smaller islands).
PythonidaeFitzinger, 1826840PythonsSubsaharan Africa, India, Myanmar, southern China, Southeast Asia and from the Philippines southeast through Indonesia to New Guinea and Australia.
TropidophiidaeBrongersma, 1951234Dwarf boasWest Indies; also Panama and northwestern South America, as well as in northwestern and southeastern Brazil.
UropeltidaeMüller, 1832855Shield-tailed snakesSouthern India and Sri Lanka.
ViperidaeOppel, 181135341VipersThe Americas, Africa, and Eurasia east to Wallace's Line.
XenodermidaeCope, 1900618Dragon & odd-scaled snakesSouthern and southeastern Asia, and islands on the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and their surrounding smaller islands).
XenopeltidaeBonaparte, 184512Sunbeam snakesSoutheast Asia from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, east through Myanmar to southern China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula and the East Indies to Sulawesi, as well as the Philippines.
XenophidiidaeWallach & Günther, 199812Spine-jawed snakesBorneo & peninsular Malaysia.
Infraorder Scolecophidia 5 families
Family[6]Taxon author[6]Genera[6]Species[6]Common nameGeographic range[34]
AnomalepidaeTaylor, 1939418Primitive blind snakesFrom southern Central America to northwestern South America. Disjunct populations in northeastern and southeastern South America.
GerrhopilidaeVidal, Wynn, Donnellan and Hedges 2010318Indo-Malayan blindsnakesSouthern & southeastern Asia, including Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and New Guinea.
LeptotyphlopidaeStejneger, 189213139Slender blind snakesAfrica, western Asia from Turkey to northwestern India, on Socotra Island, from the southwestern United States south through Mexico and Central to South America, though not in the high Andes. In Pacific South America they occur as far south as southern coastal Peru, and on the Atlantic side as far as Uruguay and Argentina. In the Caribbean they are found on the Bahamas, Hispaniola and the Lesser Antilles.
TyphlopidaeMerrem, 182021266Typical blind snakesMost tropical and many subtropical regions around the world, particularly in Africa, Madagascar, Asia, islands in the Pacific, tropical America and in southeastern Europe.
XenotyphlopidaeVidal, Vences, Branch and Hedges 201011Round-nosed blindsnakeNorthern Madagascar.

Legless lizards

Main article: Legless lizard

While snakes are limbless reptiles, which evolved from (and are grouped with) lizards, there are many other species of lizards which have lost their limbs independently and superficially look similar to snakes. These include the slowworm and glass snake.

Biology

Size

The now extinctTitanoboa cerrejonensis snakes found were 12.8 m (42 ft) in length.[9] By comparison, the largest extant snakes are the reticulated python, which measures about 6.95 m (22.8 ft) long,[8] and the anaconda, which measures about 5.21 m (17.1 ft) long and is considered the heaviest snake on Earth at 97.5 kg (215 lb).[37]

At the other end of the scale, the smallest extant snake is Leptotyphlops carlae, with a length of about 10.4 cm (4.1 in).[7] Most snakes are fairly small animals, approximately 1 m (3.3 ft) in length.[38]

Perception

Pit vipers, pythons, and some boas have infrared-sensitive receptors in deep grooves on the snout, which allow them to "see" the radiated heat of warm-blooded prey. In pit vipers, the grooves are located between the nostril and the eye in a large "pit" on each side of the head. Other infrared-sensitive snakes have multiple, smaller labial pits lining the upper lip, just below the nostrils.[39]

Snakes use smell to track their prey. They smell by using their forked tongues to collect airborne particles, then passing them to the vomeronasal organ or Jacobson's organ in the mouth for examination.[39] The fork in the tongue gives snakes a sort of directional sense of smell and taste simultaneously.[39] They keep their tongues constantly in motion, sampling particles from the air, ground, and water, analyzing the chemicals found, and determining the presence of prey or predators in the local environment. In water-dwelling snakes, such as the anaconda, the tongue functions efficiently underwater.[39]

The underside is very sensitive to vibration. This allows snakes to be able to sense approaching animals by detecting faint vibrations in the ground.[39]

Snake vision varies greatly, from only being able to distinguish light from dark to keen eyesight, but the main trend is that their vision is adequate although not sharp, and allows them to track movements.[40] Generally, vision is best in arboreal snakes and weakest in burrowing snakes. Some snakes, such as the Asian vine snake (genus Ahaetulla), have binocular vision, with both eyes capable of focusing on the same point. Most snakes focus by moving the lens back and forth in relation to the retina, while in the other amniote groups, the lens is stretched. Many nocturnal snakes have slit pupils while diurnal snakes have round pupils.

Skin

Main article: Snake scales

The skin of a snake is covered in scales. Contrary to the popular notion of snakes being slimy because of possible confusion of snakes with worms, snakeskin has a smooth, dry texture. Most snakes use specialized belly scales to travel, gripping surfaces. The body scales may be smooth, keeled, or granular. The eyelids of a snake are transparent "spectacle" scales, which remain permanently closed, also known as brille.

The shedding of scales is called ecdysis (or in normal usage, molting or sloughing). In the case of snakes, the complete outer layer of skin is shed in one layer.[41] Snake scales are not discrete, but extensions of the epidermis—hence they are not shed separately but as a complete outer layer during each molt, akin to a sock being turned inside out.

The shape and number of scales on the head, back, and belly are often characteristic and used for taxonomic purposes. Scales are named mainly according to their positions on the body. In "advanced" (Caenophidian) snakes, the broad belly scales and rows of dorsal scales correspond to the vertebrae, allowing scientists to count the vertebrae without dissection.

Molting

Molting, or ecdysis, serves a number of functions. Firstly, the old and worn skin is replaced; secondly, it helps get rid of parasites such as mites and ticks. Renewal of the skin by moulting is supposed to allow growth in some animals such as insects; however, this has been disputed in the case of snakes.[43]

Molting occurs periodically throughout the snake's life. Before a molt, the snake stops eating and often hides or moves to a safe place. Just before shedding, the skin becomes dull and dry looking and the eyes become cloudy or blue-colored. The inner surface of the old skin liquefies. This causes the old skin to separate from the new skin beneath it. After a few days, the eyes clear and the snake "crawls" out of its old skin. The old skin breaks near the mouth and the snake wriggles out, aided by rubbing against rough surfaces. In many cases, the cast skin peels backward over the body from head to tail in one piece, like pulling a sock off inside-out. A new, larger, brighter layer of skin has formed underneath.[44]

An older snake may shed its skin only once or twice a year. But a younger snake, still growing, may shed up to four times a year.[44] The discarded skin gives a perfect imprint of the scale pattern, and it is usually possible to identify the snake if the discarded skin is reasonably intact. This periodic renewal has led to the snake being a symbol of healing and medicine, as pictured in the Rod of Asclepius.[45]

Scale counts can sometimes be used to tell the sex of a snake when the species is not distinctly sexually dimorphic. A probe is inserted into the cloaca until it can go no further. The probe is marked at the point where it stops, removed, and compared to the subcaudal depth by laying it alongside the scales.[46] The scalation count determines whether the snake is a male or female as hemipenes of a male will probe to a different depth (usually longer) than the cloaca of a female.[46][clarification needed]

Skeleton

The skeleton of most snakes consists solely of the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, and ribs, though henophidian snakes retain vestiges of the pelvis and rear limbs.

The skull of the snake consists of a solid and complete neurocranium, to which many of the other bones are only loosely attached, particularly the highly mobile jaw bones, which facilitate manipulation and ingestion of large prey items. The left and right sides of the lower jaw are joined only by a flexible ligament at the anterior tips, allowing them to separate widely, while the posterior end of the lower jaw bones articulate with a quadrate bone, allowing further mobility. The bones of the mandible and quadrate bones can also pick up ground borne vibrations.[47] Because the sides of the jaw can move independently of one another, snakes resting their jaws on a surface have sensitive stereo hearing which can detect the position of prey. The jaw-quadrate-stapes pathway is capable of detecting vibrations on the angstrom scale, despite the absence of an outer ear and the ossicle mechanism of impedance matching used in other vertebrates to receive vibrations from the air.[48][49]

The hyoid is a small bone located posterior and ventral to the skull, in the 'neck' region, which serves as an attachment for muscles of the snake's tongue, as it does in all other tetrapods.

The vertebral column consists of anywhere between 200 and 400 (or more) vertebrae. Tail vertebrae are comparatively few in number (often less than 20% of the total) and lack ribs, while body vertebrae each have two ribs articulating with them. The vertebrae have projections that allow for strong muscle attachment enabling locomotion without limbs.

Autotomy of the tail, a feature found in some lizards is absent in most snakes.[50] Caudal autotomy in snakes is rare and is intervertebral, unlike that in lizards, which is intravertebral—that is, the break happens along a predefined fracture plane present on a vertebra.[51][52]

In some snakes, most notably boas and pythons, there are vestiges of the hindlimbs in the form of a pair of pelvic spurs. These small, claw-like protrusions on each side of the cloaca are the external portion of the vestigial hindlimb skeleton, which includes the remains of an ilium and femur.

Snakes are polyphyodonts with teeth that are continuously replaced.[53]

Internal organs

The snake's heart is encased in a sac, called the pericardium, located at the bifurcation of the bronchi. The heart is able to move around, however, owing to the lack of a diaphragm. This adjustment protects the heart from potential damage when large ingested prey is passed through the esophagus. The spleen is attached to the gall bladder and pancreas and filters the blood. The thymus is located in fatty tissue above the heart and is responsible for the generation of immune cells in the blood. The cardiovascular system of snakes is also unique for the presence of a renal portal system in which the blood from the snake's tail passes through the kidneys before returning to the heart.[54]

The vestigial left lung is often small or sometimes even absent, as snakes' tubular bodies require all of their organs to be long and thin.[54] In the majority of species, only one lung is functional. This lung contains a vascularized anterior portion and a posterior portion that does not function in gas exchange.[54] This 'saccular lung' is used for hydrostatic purposes to adjust buoyancy in some aquatic snakes and its function remains unknown in terrestrial species.[54] Many organs that are paired, such as kidneys or reproductive organs, are staggered within the body, with one located ahead of the other.[54]

Snakes have no lymph nodes.[54]

Venom

See also: Snake venom, Venomous snake, and § Bite

Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs.[17]:243 The fangs of 'advanced' venomous snakes like viperids and elapids are hollow to inject venom more effectively, while the fangs of rear-fanged snakes such as the boomslang merely have a groove on the posterior edge to channel venom into the wound. Snake venoms are often prey specific—their role in self-defense is secondary.[17]:243

Venom, like all salivary secretions, is a predigestant that initiates the breakdown of food into soluble compounds, facilitating proper digestion. Even nonvenomous snake bites (like any animal bite) will cause tissue damage.[17]:209

Certain birds, mammals, and other snakes (such as kingsnakes) that prey on venomous snakes have developed resistance and even immunity to certain venoms.[17]:243 Venomous snakes include three families of snakes, and do not constitute a formal classification group used in taxonomy.

The colloquial term "poisonous snake" is generally an incorrect label for snakes. A poison is inhaled or ingested, whereas venom produced by snakes is injected into its victim via fangs.[55] There are, however, two exceptions: Rhabdophis sequesters toxins from the toads it eats, then secretes them from nuchal glands to ward off predators, and a small unusual population of garter snakes in the U.S. state of Oregon retains enough toxins in their livers from the newts they eat to be effectively poisonous to small local predators (such as crows and foxes).[56]

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, and are stored in venom glands at the back of the head.[56] In all venomous snakes, these glands open through ducts into grooved or hollow teeth in the upper jaw.[17]:243[55] These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the circulatory system), cytotoxins, bungarotoxins and many other toxins that affect the body in different ways.[55] Almost all snake venom contains hyaluronidase, an enzyme that ensures rapid diffusion of the venom.[17]:243

Fossil of Archaeophis proavus.
Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse.
A snake shedding its skin.
When compared, the skeletons of snakes are radically different from those of most other reptiles (such as the turtle, right), being made up almost entirely of an extended ribcage.
Anatomy of a snake.file info
  1. esophagus
  2. trachea
  3. tracheal lungs
  4. rudimentary left lung
  5. right lung
  6. heart
  7. liver
  8. stomach
  9. air sac
  10. gallbladder
  11. pancreas
  12. spleen
  13. intestine
  14. testicles
  15. kidneys
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